Growing Tensions Involving Turkey and Greece Divide E.U. Leaders


BRUSSELS — An escalating dispute involving Greece and Turkey in excess of vitality assets in the eastern Mediterranean is rapidly turning out to be militarized, raising the dangers of a clash between NATO allies.

Foreign Minister Heiko Maas of Germany, who visited Greece and Turkey this week urging dialogue, warned each governments towards more military escalation. “Fire is becoming played with and any tiny spark could lead to catastrophe,” he mentioned on Tuesday.

As Germany tries to mediate, 4 of its fellow E.U. members, France, Greece, Cyprus and Italy, are engaged in military exercise routines involving ships and planes off the Cypriot coast. Their function, they say, is to deter Turkey from more vitality exploration in disputed waters, a thing it has been accomplishing for a number of weeks with vessels guarded by warships and jet fighters.

France has sided with Greece, sending ships and planes to the area final week. French officials have also criticized Turkey, a member of NATO but not of the European Union, for its help of the United Nations-backed government in Libya, which it has presented with troops in return for a controversial maritime vitality deal that would lengthen Turkish drilling rights in the eastern Mediterranean.

The French defense minister, Florence Parly, when insisting that dialogue was her priority, announced the two-day military exercise routines Wednesday, insisting that “respect for global law need to be the rule and not the exception.”

But the European Union is split on how to tackle the crisis. France, Greece and Cyprus want a hard line, when Germany, Spain and Italy favor a far more conciliatory method.

Individuals tensions will be mentioned as European Union defense and foreign ministers meet this week in Berlin. The bloc has presently objected to most of Turkey’s claims, like its Libya deal, which Washington also refuses to acknowledge.

Led by Greece, Cyprus and France, some E.U. members want sweeping new sanctions, and the bloc’s foreign-policy chief, Josep Borrell Fontelles, will current choices for discussion in Berlin. But Germany, which holds the European Union’s rotating presidency, is keen to current some incentive to Turkey in return for de-escalation.

Though Greece and Turkey have agreed to exploratory talks, Mr. Maas mentioned, “it is clear that this kind of talks can only get area and be effective in a constructive natural environment, and for that, all destructive pursuits need to be ended.”

Turkey’s foreign minister, Mevlut Cavusoglu, mentioned Tuesday that Ankara was “open to talks with no preconditions, but when one particular side commences imposing preconditions, then there are quite a few factors we will place forth, also.” He warned Greece to “stop becoming bratty” and drawing red lines that could lead to conflict.

But Greece needs to restrict talks to delineating the continental shelf and consequent vitality rights in the eastern Mediterranean, and not to present a blank slate for other Turkish grievances, like the standing of Greek-inhabited islands in the Aegean.

The foreign ministers are not anticipated to make selections on sanctions or incentives in Berlin, with the European Council president, Charles Michel, saying that the challenges would be mentioned at a summit of leaders on Sept. 24.

Tensions involving Greece and Turkey go back, at least a short while ago, to the Turkish invasion of Cyprus in 1974 and the island’s division. The two nations practically went to war in 1996 in excess of an uninhabited island, a crisis defused by U.S. diplomacy.

Whilst Washington has backed Greece and Cyprus with quiet diplomacy and some military help, like sending an aircraft carrier into the eastern Mediterranean, it is now letting Germany get the lead in managing the crisis.

Turkey has grow to be far more nationalist and assertive due to the fact the failed 2016 coup towards the government of President Recep Tayyip Erdogan, who has pressed Turkish interests as far afield as Syria and Libya. Germany is also cognizant that Turkey homes up to 4 million refugees and migrants who may otherwise attempt to come to Europe.

Turkey seems to be pursuing what it calls “Blue Homeland,” an expansionist tactic to declare waters and assets in the eastern Mediterranean and Aegean managed by Greece and other nations. The program envisions Turkey taking in excess of a number of Greek islands the place hundreds of 1000’s of Greek citizens reside.

Though Greece may possibly agree to get disputes pertaining to claims in the southeastern Mediterranean to global arbitration in The Hague, it will not negotiate about the Aegean.

The root of the latest crisis was the discovery ten many years in the past of significant organic-gasoline fields in the eastern Mediterranean. As far more gasoline has been found and exploited, nations have asserted their rights to frequently-overlapping offshore regions acknowledged as unique financial zones. Some nations ordinarily at odds — like Israel, Greece, Cyprus and Egypt — have cooperated on gasoline tasks.

But the different consortiums have excluded Turkey, and Greece’s ownership of islands near to the Turkish coast offers Athens claims of exclusivity that rankle Ankara.

“Their aim was to imprison our nation, which has the longest coastline in the Mediterranean, into a coastal strip from which you can only catch fish with a rod,” Mr. Erdogan has complained.

For instance, Israel, Cyprus, Greece and Italy are setting up a pipeline termed EastMed to carry gasoline to European customers, but Turkey’s far more latest maritime claims cross its route, and Mr. Erdogan has vowed to block it.

Ankara argues that Cyprus has no proper to exploit its gasoline assets until eventually it reaches a deal to share them with Turkish Cypriots in the island’s north. Turkey, which is not a signatory to the U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea, beneath which unique financial zones are set, contests individuals claimed by Greece and Cyprus and needs a bigger one particular for itself.

Mr. Erdogan sent survey and drilling ships to check out off Cyprus this yr, prompting mild European sanctions in February, and has finished the identical close to the island of Rhodes. Greece mentioned it would defend its territory, and Turkey overflew Greek islands with fighter jets and place naval vessels into the place. This month, a Greek frigate collided with a Turkish one particular safeguarding the survey ship, prompting the French choice to assist Greece.

The standoff has been the most really serious confrontation involving NATO allies due to the fact Turkey and Greece faced off in 1996.

Germany needs each sides to halt the chest-beating and speak. But shortly following Mr. Erdogan agreed to clear away his investigate vessel in late July, the Greek prime minister, Kyriakos Mitsotakis, signed an vitality deal with Egypt that would demarcate their unique financial zones. Mr. Erdogan responded angrily, saying that the nations had no mutual sea border and that the deal infringed on Libya’s zone. As Greece moved to ratify the deal, he sent his ships back yet again.

Mr. Mitsotakis needs to demonstrate firmness at house with no unduly provoking Ankara, Greek officials say. But on Wednesday he announced that Greece would lengthen its territorial waters in the Ionian Sea to the west from 6 to twelve nautical miles, an entitlement beneath the U.N. convention, and that it reserved the proper to do so elsewhere.

But he is unlikely to attempt in the Aegean, due to the fact Turkey has mentioned that this kind of a move would be grounds for war.

Mr. Erdogan mentioned that Turkey “will get no matter what it is entitled to” in the area, vowing that “we will never ever make concessions on what belongs to us.”

Offered Turkey’s far more aggressive and nationalist posture, quite a few feel that the European Union need to feel via a distinct romance with a nation that stays a essential NATO ally, trading spouse and bridge to the Muslim planet.

Stefano Stefanini, a former Italian ambassador to NATO, says Europe ought to halt “going via the motions” on the prospect that Turkey could grow to be a member, a 21-yr saga with negotiations stalled due to the fact 2016, and “discuss what could be a forward-hunting, inclusive romance with the E.U.”

That may consist of visa-totally free travel and a reform of the current customs union, he mentioned, “a generous romance but brief of membership.”

But that would presume a negotiated remedy or acceptable arbitration to share the assets of the eastern Mediterranean.

Niki Kitsantonis contributed reporting from Athens, and Matina Stevis-Gridneff from Brussels.


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